Fire risk analysis and concepts
Fire safety concepts
IFAB provides fire safety concepts for rolling stock that show how fire safety is realized in the given projects and how fire safety measures are implemented. Dependent on legislative requirements, European regulations for rolling stock such as TSI LOC&PAS, EN 45545, EN 50553 or other legislations like NFPA 130 or national notified technical rules (NNTR’s) can be applied within the fire safety concept. According to the type of vehicle and its intended purpose (incl. infrastructure considerations) it is determined, which fire safety measures are applied to gain a most effective and cost optimized concept. The following measures can be applied to develop a client specific fire safety concept:
• preventive fire safety measures,
• fire containment or fire spreading control measures,
• measures for fire elimination.
IFAB supports to find the right measurements and helps to realize required actions. In case approval of the efficiency of an automatic fire detection and fire extinguishing system is required by concept, IFAB as an accredited test lab can support regarding measures like, smoke tests, fire test or/and CFD-Simulations. IFAB can also define requirements for such systems within the fire safety concept. IFAB gained numerous experiences in the exercise of engineering methods as a proof.
A holistic fire safety concept also includes evacuation aspects, fire risk analysis, running capability analysis and various other aspects. The objective for fire safety concepts is to have a comprehensive solution that provides the best technical value for the clients.
IFAB´s aim is to achieve the required level of safety with reasonable costs and moderate impact on vehicle design.
Fire risk analysis
Fire risk comprises the probability of fire and its expected damage to life, business or property. Fire risk analysis is the starting point for effective fire safety designs and fire safety concepts, and it can include different methods such as semi-quantitative index methods, quantitative event tree analysis, and quantitative system reliability analysis. The risks and especially the different levels of consequence are defined in close cooperation with the client.
IFAB analyses evacuation scenarios for rolling stock according to given standard values, e.g. according to TSI LOC&PAS, or in conjunction with the overall concept. Tools used can consist of CFD-Simulations, calculations according to NFPA130 or calculations according to Predtetschenski and Milinski.
Running capability concepts
Running capability concepts in case of fire on board of rolling stock including considerations by having critical infrastructures and worse evacuation possibilities built an essential part of holistic fire safety concepts. In order to realize such concepts, IFAB uses methodologies given in EN 50553.